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Parenting

Kangaroo Mother Care and the Bonding Hypothesis

PEDIATRICS Vol. 102 No. 2 August 1998, p. e17

Réjean Tessier*, Marta Cristo, Stella Velez, Marta Girón, SW; Zita Figueroa de Calume, Juan G. Ruiz-Paláez, Yves Charpak, and Nathalie Charpak

From the *School of Psychology, Laval University, Québec, Canada; ISS-World Lab, Kangaroo Mother Care Program, Clinica del Nino, Santa Fe de Bogotá, Colombia; - Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Javeriana University, Santa Fe de Bogotá, Colombia; and EVAL (Institut pour l'Évaluation dans le domaine Médical, Médico-social et de Santé Publique), Paris, France.

TABLE 4

Mother’s Perception and Mother and Child’s Observed Sensitivity by Intervention Groups (KMC vs TC) and Delay From Starting Intervention
Delay 1 (1-2 Days) Delay 2 (3-14 Days) Delay 3 (> 14 Days)
KMC
(n = 100)
TC
(n = 70)
KMC
(n = 92)
TC
(n = 85)
KMC
(n = 50)
TC
(n = 91)
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
Mothers’ perception (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)
  Sense of competence .26  ± .95 -.15  ± .82 .15  ± 1.0 -.10  ± 1.2 .09  ± 1.2 -.12  ± .85 ace > bdf**1
  Stress and worry .06  ± 1.0 -.25  ± .77 .12  ± .97 .03  ± .97 -.05  ± 1.1 .24  ± 1.3 f > d > b*3 f > e*3
  Social support -.10  ± 1.0 -.04  ± .93 .03  ± .98 .09  ± .93 -.15  ± 1.2 .32  ± .77 ace < bdf*1 f > e*3
Mothers’ sensitivity
  Sensitivity .73  ± .11 .71  ± .13 .72  ± .12 .73  ± .13 .75  ± .12 .69  ± .15 ace > bdf*1 e > f*3
  Response to distress .87  ± .16 .90  ± .14 .92  ± .13 .91  ± .15 .88  ± .15 .87  ± .16 cd > ab = ef*2
  Socioemotional growth fostering .57  ± .16 .56  ± .16 .59  ± .15 .61  ± .15 .60  ± .15 .55  ± .15
  Cognitive fostering .30  ± .20 .28  ± .17 .31  ± .19 .35  ± .21 .37  ± .20 .30  ± .19 e > f*3
  Child’s clarity of cues .64  ± .15 .63  ± .15 .64  ± .14 .62  ± .18 .64  ± .13 .64  ± .14
  Child’s responsivity .29  ± .14 .31  ± .15 .31  ± .12 .29  ± .13 .33  ± .12 .28  ± .11
(a), (b), (c), (d), (e), and (f) Represent group means.
* P < .05;
** P < .01;
*** P < .001; t < .10. 1 Group effect; 2 delay effect; 3 interaction effect.
Pediatrics (ISSN 0031 4005). © 1998 by the American Academy of Pediatrics

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